Freshwater Future Canada Blog

Freshwater Weekly — June 1, 2018

This week: Ontarians Disapprove of Water Extraction Permits + Flooding Study Moves Forward + Foxconn Diversion Challenged + 10 Ways to Prevent Invasive Species

New Poll Shows Ontario Voters Support Phasing Out Bottled Water Extraction Permits

A recent poll shows that 64% of eligible Ontario voters support phasing out bottled water extraction entirely within 10 years. 52% of those respondents support an even faster timeline of 2 years. The top listed concerns are excessive waste from plastic bottles, the treatment of water as a commodity, the negative environmental impact of water withdrawals, and the reinforcement of the perception that tap water is unsafe.

The current Ontario government instituted a moratorium of new extraction permits, for the stated purpose of better researching the combined effects of extraction, climate change, and population growth on groundwater supplies. It is unknown at this time if the moratorium will be extended.

U.S. Senators Push Lake Ontario, Lake Erie Flooding Study Forward

A key U.S. Senate committee last week approved a “must-pass” water resources bill that authorizes funding for the Great Lakes Coastal Resiliency Study, which aims to examine infrastructure improvements that might be necessary to prevent flooding all through the Great Lakes basin. Senators from New York, including Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer, committed to working with the Army Corps of Engineers to set aside the funding needed for completion.

The study is in response to the widespread coastal flooding that occured on Lake Ontario, the St. Lawrence Seaway, and to a lesser degree, Lake Erie last year. Hundreds of millions of dollars in damage occured in New York, Ontario, and Quebec. Provincial disaster relief and insurance claims are expected to tally up to more than half-a-billion dollars in Quebec alone.

Water levels in these waterways are influenced by a mixture of precipitation, tributary inflows, ice cover, snowmelt, and how much water is allowed to pass through the Moses-Saunders Dam in Massena, New York. Canada and the United States created the independently-run International Joint Commission (IJC) in part to control water flow from the dam. Many, especially in the United States, blame the IJC and a new set of rules called Plan 2014 for last year’s record flooding. But regulating water levels is a delicate balance: counteracting high water levels in one place can lead to flooding in others. Every centimeter of water released from Lake Ontario pushes the St. Lawrence River 10 centimeters higher, which means the interests of Canadians and Americans are pitted against one another.

Proponents of the U.S. study hope it will provide a path forward to protecting against future flooding and high water levels, while allowing for the natural water-level variation necessary for healthy ecosystems.

Diversion of Lake Michigan Water for Foxconn Factory Challenged

The Midwest Environmental Advocates (MEA)—representing Milwaukee Riverkeeper, League of Women Voters of Wisconsin, River Alliance of Wisconsin, and Minnesota Center for Environmental Advocacy—have filed a legal action to halt a Lake Michigan water diversion for the proposed Foxconn factory in Racine County, Wisconsin.

According to MEA, the “Wisconsin [Department of Natural Resources] disregarded and unreasonably interpreted a core Compact requirement that all water transferred out of the Great Lakes Basin must be used for public water supply purposes, clearly defined as ‘serving a group of largely residential customers.’” As the diversion application was written, submitted, and approved, the City of Racine identified a total of 0 gallons to be used to supply residential customers. Of the total 7 million gallons/day, 5.8 will go directly to Foxconn’s main facility while the remaining 1.2 will supply surrounding industrial and commercial facilities.

Freshwater Future agrees with the argument set forth by MEA attorneys. We believe the Wisconsin DNR’s decision sets a dangerous precedent that could open up Great Lakes withdrawals to uses beyond the intent of the Great Lakes Compact, and we’ll continue to support challenges to the diversion.

10 Ways You Can Prevent Invasive Species

Summer weather has descended upon the Great Lakes and with it millions of residents and tourists—boats, kayaks, paddle boards, and swimsuits in tow. With all that movement comes an increased risk for spreading nuisance invasive species like Asian carp, eurasian milfoil, emerald ash borer, and non-native cattails. Check out our newest blog post on the best ways YOU can prevent the spread of invasive species this summer.

Ways to Make a Difference

There are lots of simple ways to help protect our waters. Find more at

Freshwater Weekly — May 25, 2018

This week: 10 Ways to Prevent Invasive Species + Lake Erie Algae Forecast + Michigan Close to Passing Stricter Lead Standard

10 Ways You Can Prevent Invasive Species

Summer weather has descended upon the Great Lakes and with it millions of residents and tourists—boats, kayaks, paddle boards, and swimsuits in tow. With all that movement comes an increased risk for spreading nuisance invasive species like Asian carp, eurasian milfoil, emerald ash borer, and non-native cattails. Check out our newest blog post on the best ways YOU can prevent the spread of invasive species this summer.

Lake Erie Algae Forecast: Record Bloom Unlikely, But Expect Thick Scum

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), alongside the National Center for Water Quality Research, has released preliminary Lake Erie data that suggests this year’s bloom likely won’t be as bad as last year, but will certainly beat the 2016 bloom. Check out NOAA’s May 7th projection graphs here.

Michigan One Step Closer to Stricter Lead Standard

A pending rule change would lower the “action level” for lead from 15 parts per billion (ppb) to 12 ppb in 2025, which means 90% of system samples must be below that level or broader intervention is required. Alternatively put, up to 10% of samples can be above 12 ppb in 2025 and beyond. A new stipulation will ensure samples are taken from the highest-risk sites and that state-of-the-art lead detection methods are used. The rule would also mandate that water utilities replace at least 5% of their inventoried lead service lines per year, and ban partial replacement of lead service pipes. Michigan has approximately 500,000 lead service lines. Replacement costs approximately $5,000/line, making full replacement pricey.

Freshwater Future remains skeptical that this rule change will be effective in preventing lead exposure, and we’re alarmed at the attached, unfunded mandate. Replacing lead service lines should be a priority as public utilities update their infrastructure, but in municipalities with thousands of lead service lines—often low-income communities of color—the high cost of quick replacement will likely be passed on to residents already suffering egregiously high service rates. We’re working with our community partners across the state to fight for proper funding and ensure all residents have access to clean, safe, and affordable drinking water.

Ways to Make a Difference

There are lots of simple ways to help protect our waters. Find more at

Freshwater Weekly – May 11th, 2018

This week: Farming and nutrient pollution + Ontario’s indigenous water crisis + Flint lead pipe replacement resumes + Ontario budget a win for the Great Lakes

Canada’s Indigenous Water Crisis Still Ongoing

What many Canadians and Americans take for granted every day has been an out-of-reach luxury for hundreds of thousands of Canadian citizens for decades. In 2015, there were 133 boil-water advisories in 93 different First Nation communities—the vast majority of which are in Ontario. Despite promises to end boil-water advisories for First Nations, the Trudeau government is still a long way from achieving that goal. As of the beginning of the month, 76 of those advisories were still in effect. Even in the more densely-populated areas of Southern Ontario, the Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte First Nation has been under an advisory for over 10 years. 53% of residents’ water wells there have tested positive for E. coli and fecal bacteria.

The causes are many, and contextualizing the current day crisis requires delving into Canada’s rich colonial history. But an undeniable component––according to Human Rights Watch––is the reality that the stringent and legally binding safe water standards of Canada’s provincial and territorial governments do not extend to First Nations communities. This has lead to systems being designed, constructed, and operated on reserves without the same kind of legal standards and protections that apply to all other Canadians. Of the dozens of drinking water advisories in effect on systems in Ontario First Nations, at least 57 of them are for systems less than 25 years old and 12 are for systems less than 15 years old.

To hear the water crisis from First Nation citizens themselves, we recommend checking out this Human Rights Watch produced video and this collection of stories compiled by VICE News. You can read the full Human Rights Watch report here and a summary of a new progress report by the Suzuki Foundation here.

Ontario’s 2018 Budget Makes Big Investments in Great Lakes

On Tuesday, Ontario passed its 2018 budget, which includes $52 million over three years in new funding to support Great Lakes conservation and restoration. Programs targeted for funding include monitoring and research on a variety issues (with a focus on Lake Erie), reducing pollution from combined sewer overflows, leveraging First Nation and Métis knowledge and implementing the Lake Erie Action Plan to reduce algae outbreaks.

Spring Weather Prompts Flint Lead Pipe Replacement to Resume

Flint’s City Council approved nearly $28 million in contracts to five different companies at a special meeting last Wednesday. The city aims to have approximately 6,000 lead service lines replaced by the end of this year, leaving an additional 6,000 to be completed in 2019. While lead levels have dropped precipitously in recent years, residents are justifiably still wary of the water coming out of their taps. Find links to our past coverage of Flint’s water crisis here.

For more information on which neighborhoods have had lines replaced or are expected to see lines replaced, check here. If you are a Flint resident, Freshwater Future highly recommends you grant the city permission to replace lead service lines from the main water line to your water meter. This is done at no cost to you. You can fill out the FAST Start Online Opt-In Form here.

When Nutrients Become Pollution

When excess nutrients exist in waterways, it can stimulate excessive algae growth, shift the composition of species, disrupt the food web, and create hypoxic conditions. Certain types of algae release their own toxic byproducts, and many can interact with treatment chemicals to create others. In drinking water, excess nitrogen takes the form of nitrates, which are dangerous to infants and expectant mothers at high levels.

Ohio’s impairment designation of Lake Erie and subsequent admission that years of efforts to reduce agricultural runoff have been unsuccessful have prompted renewed attention to the acute problem of nutrient pollution. An estimated 90% of excess nutrients flowing into Lake Erie from Ohio waters are from nonpoint, agricultural sources, and failure to act has lead to beach closures, drinking water advisories, and the infamous 2014 Toledo water crisis. While many farmers have implemented best-practices and experimented with cutting-edge technologies, it hasn’t been enough to realize the Ohio Phosphorous Task Force’s goal of reducing excess phosphorus flowing off farms by 40 percent—the amount needed to reduce or eliminate algal blooms in Lake Erie. Now, Ohio is considering a fundamental shift away from voluntary buy-in from agriculture and towards new mandatory regulations. Read more about the steps some farmers are taking to reduce their own impacts here.

Other Great Lakes states are also coming to terms with nutrient pollution in their own waterways. The Minnesota Department of Agriculture’s recently proposed groundwater protection rule would regulate the use of nitrogen fertilizer in areas of the state where soils are vulnerable to leaching and where drinking water supplies have high nitrate levels. And the EPA is currently investigating groundwater contamination from nitrates in Wisconsin.


Ways to Make a Difference

There are lots of simple ways to help protect our waters. Find more at

Freshwater Weekly – May 4th, 2018

This week: Ontario Freshwater Priorities + the Soo Locks + Wisconsin Refinery Explosion + New Estimates for Great Lakes Oil Spill

Canadian Environmental Orgs List Ontario Freshwater Priorities

Freshwater Future Canada participated alongside an array of prominent environmental groups across Ontario in collectively drafting this list of freshwater threats and priorities for action. Highlights include ending boil-water advisories for all Ontarians including First Nation communities, reversing wetland loss by 2022, and reducing algae-feeding phosphorus pollution by 40% over the next 7 years. Addressing these threats is critical to protecting the Great Lakes, which supply drinking water to almost 80% of Ontarians.

Interview: FWF Executive Director on Lake Erie Algae Problem

DWILS 1320 radio station out of Lansing, Michigan interviewed our Executive Director—Jill Ryan—about Lake Erie’s algae problem. Jill reacted to Ohio’s recent announcement (read our summary in last week’s email) that its voluntary preventative measures haven’t worked, and she gave her thoughts on what needs to be done moving forward. Check it out here.

Scientists Testing for Black Carbon in Lake Superior After Wisconsin Refinery Explosion

Last Thursday, residents of Superior, Wisconsin and Duluth, Minnesota watched as thick, black smoke poured into the air from an explosion at Husky Energy’s Superior Refinery. The smoke plume was so massive that folks miles away could see it.

Fires—both natural and artificial—create a byproduct called black carbon, and researchers at University of Minnesota—Duluth are taking the opportunity to measure the levels of black carbon that were potentially added to Lake Superior from the smoke plume. Black carbon occurs naturally in the Lake, but the scientists are hoping that any measurable increase can offer insight into how black carbon effects microorganisms that live in freshwater. They say further study could illuminate how pollutants like oil cycle through and degrade in the Lake, something that’s not well understood in large lakes like Lake Superior.

Michigan State University Study: $6.3 Billion Price Tag for Potential Mackinac Straits Oil Spill

MSU professor and ecological economist Robert B. Richardson has released a new study estimating the impacts of a potential oil spill in the Straits of Mackinac. The study’s conclusions are notably higher than previous estimates: $697.5 million in natural resource damage and restoration costs, $4.8 billion in economic impact to the tourism economy, $61 million in damage to commercial fishing, $233 million impact to municipal water systems, and $485 million in damage to coastal property values.

The pipeline, built in 1953, runs 645 miles from Superior, Wisconsin, to Sarnia, Canada, and transports up to 540,000 barrels of light crude oil and natural gas liquids per day. Calls to shut down the pipeline have become increasingly vocal and mainstream since 2013, when Line-5-operator Enbridge was found responsible the Kalamazoo River oil spill—one of the largest inland spills in U.S. history.


Ways to Make a Difference

There are lots of simple ways to help protect our waters. Find more at

Freshwater Weekly — April 27th, 2018

This week: Ontario ferrochrome smelter + algae forecast + Foxconn gets 7 million gallons/day + oil spill simulation + Flint crisis anniversary

Ohio EPA: Lake Erie Algae Prevention Unsuccessful

Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario have all pledged to reduce nutrient loads reaching Lake Erie by 40% by 2025. A new Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study shows that the state is not on track to meet this target. Researchers found no clear decrease during the past five years in the nutrient pollution feeding the persistent algal blooms in Lake Erie. The review also finds that the vast majority of the phosphorus and nitrogen flowing from Ohio’s streams and rivers into the lake’s western end comes from agriculture.

In this Detroit Free Press article, Freshwater Future’s Executive Director—Jill Ryan— talks about what the study means for the future of algae prevention. The study’s results demonstrate that states must move beyond voluntary action programs, and that more must be done to ensure farmers have the tools and funding available to implement solutions and best practices.

Northern Ontario Will Host Ferrochrome Smelter

The “Ring of Fire” is the bestowed name of a massive planned chromite mining and smelting development project located in the mineral-rich James Bay Lowlands of Northern Ontario. While the mine itself would lie outside the Great Lakes basin, the proposed ferrochrome smelting facility, or processing plant, may be built in Sudbury, Sault Ste. Marie, or Thunder Bay—each within the Great Lakes watershed.

Noront Resources, the corporation behind the development, is expected to announce their chosen location after this year’s provincial election.

Wisconsin DNR Approves Diversion for Planned Foxconn LCD Factory  

Late Wednesday, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) publicly announced their approval of a plan to provide Foxconn Technology Group 7 million gallons/day of Lake Michigan water. The coastal city of Racine, Wisconsin will provide the diversion, which will travel approximately 6 miles to the factory site in nearby Mount Pleasant.

The reason the diversion required state approval is the fact that Mount Pleasant is a “straddling community,” meaning the municipality lies partially within the Great Lakes basin and partially without. That made it subject to the Great Lakes Compact, which requires state officials to approve diversions for straddling communities. Communities outside the basin, but within a straddling county, require the approval of all Great Lakes states.

While the diversion will represent only a 0.07% increase in total surface water withdrawals from Lake Michigan, Freshwater Future opposed the diversion primarily because the Great Lakes Compact requires straddling community diversions to be made for “public purposes.” We believe allowing Foxconn, a private corporation, to circumvent this requirement sets a potentially dangerous legal precedent that may undermine the Compact’s ability to conserve Great Lakes water.

Simulation Shows How Devastating Chemical and Oil Spills Could Be in the Straits of Mackinac

A Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) simulation shows that the unique currents in the Straits would cause materials to disperse far more quickly than in other locations in the Great Lakes. Over the course of one week, a chemical contaminant could spread to hundreds of miles of coastline in Michigan’s Upper and Lower Peninsulas.

An early April 550 gallon coolant leak from electric cables in the Straits of Mackinac brought renewed attention to the area’s ecological and economic vulnerability. For several years, northern Michigan inhabitants have grown increasingly weary of Enbridge Inc.’s 65-year-old Line 5, which carries petroleum products across Lake Michigan just west of the Mackinac Bridge. This month’s leak brought renewed focus on the beleaguered pipeline when it was revealed that the same anchor strike that caused the coolant leak also dented Line 5 in several locations.

Wednesday Marked Four Year Anniversary of Flint Water Crisis

After four years, over 12,000 lead service lines still need replacing, high lead levels are still a concern, and folks still don’t trust their tap water. Curt Guyette, an investigative reporter for the ACLU of Michigan, wrote this blog on why the water crisis isn’t even close to being over.

You can catch up on the last year of Freshwater Future’s coverage using the links below.

Freshwater Future Condemns Michigan’s Decision to End Free Bottled Water Program for Flint Residents | The Lead and Copper Rule Is Not a Health Based Rule | Flint Residents Shouldn’t Lose Their Homes Over Bills for Poisoned Water | Michigan Governor Appoints State Official Criminally Charged in Flint Crisis to New Public Health Panel | The State of Michigan Says Flint’s Water Is Safe | Michigan Proposes Stricter Standard on Lead, Replacing Lead Pipes Statewide

Ways to Make a Difference

There are lots of simple ways to help protect our waters. Find more at